Exchange of ideas between several people is the best process of learning and teaching from one another.
In the classroom environment ,discussion is the best way of promoting conducive learning and convenient teaching situation. It refers to the method of instruction which give pupils an opportunity to express their views or opinions orally on certain issues. One person speaks at a time,while others are listen. It doesn’t always involve the presentation of new information and concepts. It also invoves sharing of ideas and experiences ,solving problems and promoting tolerance with understanding. Discussion method is suitable in many situations and can be used in many situations of teaching and learning.There are different forms of discussion that can be used in the classroom.

Kochhar(1985)identifies two major types of discussions which are formal and informal.

Informal discussions are governed by pre-determined set of rules and it includes debates,panels,symposia etc.

Whilst formal discussions may involve whole group or small groups of people divided with the intention of discussing themes . These are not governed by pre-determnined set of rules.Lets focus on the informal type of discussions.

In the classroom discussions involve a free verbal interchange of ideas for all pupils as a whole. Here the teacher is the leader who guides the discussion . Through conducting the discussion process,ask questions and decides on who should speak. This method can be suitably used in the first stage of child book child approach.
This is where the teacher asks about the assummed knowledge through reviewing pupils’ experiences .For example Do you have friends? Why do you need friends for? Do you sometimes quarrel with them ? What do you do after have a quarrel with a friend?

Small group discussions is better than a whole class discussion. It encourages more pupils to give their own views through open participation . Pupils are divided into small groups of ,four,five,six ,seven ,eight or nine and given questions or task to discuss and then reportback. Each group should have a group leader who is instructed to control the discussion process and someone who can reportback of what has be discussed.

The group setting arrangements should be in such a way that pupils are relaxed and can hear ,see each otherwell. This type of discussions is more appropriate in the second stage of the child book child approach. Which happens to be evaluation stage where pupils can discuss questions related to the text found in the book.For example in the parable of a prodigal son in the bible pupils can discuss this questions:

      •Why do you think father received his son in a positive way?


      •Was that the right thing to do?


    •Why do you think in such similar situation?

General guidelines to a good discussion should involve a well planning where the teacher should have a clear understanding of the subject topic , content and objectives of the lesson to be discussed.
The teacher’s way of giving instructions should be clearly and effectively communicated in an atmosphere that is conducive for free discussions. Please don’t ridule or belittle pupils. Rather stimulate their interests by giving positive comments and discourage domination of the discussion by the outspoken members in a group.
A teacher who helped the reserved and shy children is doing good than harm by providing the child with an opportunity to contribute. For example ,”John, what do you think about ? or Helen how do you handle this problem ?”

Stick to the topic and discurage private conversation and should conduct discussions to an end as scheduled.

The major advantages of discussion method are :

      ◦It teaches interpersonal skills such as understanding and communication.


      ◦It is child centred through provides an opportunity for pupils to learn from each other,thus encouraging teamwork.


      ◦It promotes tolerance and helps pupils to understand that they are many aspects or opinions to any one topic.


    ◦It also helps leadership ,speaking and listening skills.

The demerits of discussion methods includes time consuming ,easily dominated by the outspoken pupils,those perceived to have high sttus. Some pupils may not interested from listening to others and easily get out of hand and lose direction. Moreover some teachers can neglect planning and take advantage of literally this method haphazardly.

Laws of Learning

Adults Only

These laws are particularly relevant to adult learners.

Law of previous experience : New learning should be linked to (and build upon) the experiences of the learner.

Check the entry level of the participants. Remind yourself that adults bring a variety of rich experiences to the training session. Design activities to ensure easy adjustments to fit different entry levels and to incorporate relevant experiences.

Law of relevance: Effective learning is relevant to the learner’s life and work.

Use simulations and role plays to increase the link between the learning situation and the real world. After a training activity, debrief the participants and discuss strategies for applying what they learned in the game to their real-world context.

Law of self-direction. Most adults are self-directed learners.

Don’t force everyone to participate in every activity. Identify training objectives and let participants select among different resources and activities to learn at their own pace and according to their personal preferences. Involve participants in setting training goals and selecting appropriate types of learning activities.

Law of expectations. Learners’ reaction to a training session is shaped by their expectations related to the content area, training format, fellow participants, and the trainer.

Some learners are anxious about mathematical concepts and skills. Encourage them with intriguing puzzles and short-cut techniques. Other learners feel uncomfortable about making fools of themselves in public while playing games. Establish ground rules that reward risk-taking among participants. Demonstrate non-judgmental behavior by applauding participants for their effort.

Law of self image. Adult learners have definite notions about what type of learners they are. These notions interfere with or enhance their learning.

Reassure participants about their ability to learn new concepts and skills. Motivate them to attempt challenging tasks. Ensure frequent and early successes by making initial tasks simple and by progressing in small steps. However, avoid patronizing participants with simple, trivial tasks. Incorporate learning tasks at different levels of difficulty in your activities.

Law of multiple criteria. Adult learners use a variety of standards to judge their learning experiences and accomplishments.

Encourage participants to choose personal standards and scoring systems. Provide different ways to “win” in your activities. In simulations and role-plays, keep scores related to different criteria. During debriefing, discuss alternative criteria for measuring participants’ performance.

Law of alignment. Adult learners require the training objectives, content, activities, and assessment techniques to be aligned to each other.

Create a training situation that closely resembles the job situation. Teach and test for the same content, using similar strategies. Make sure that the scoring system used in your training activities rewards the mastery of the training objectives.

General Public

These laws apply to all human beings, from infancy to old age.

Law of active learning: Active responding produces more effective learning than passive listening or reading.

Intersperse lectures and reading assignments with active-learning episodes such as quizzes and puzzles. Provide participants with ample opportunities to respond by asking questions, encouraging them to ask questions, answering their questions, and questioning their answers.

Law of practice and feedback: Learners cannot master skills without repeated practice and relevant feedback.

Don’t confuse understanding a procedure with ability to perform it. Invest ample time in conducting activities that provide repeated practice and feedback. Make sure that the training activities incorporate immediate and useful feedback from peers and experts. Use rating scales, checklists, and other devices to ensure that the feedback is objective and useful.

Law of individual differences: Different people learn in different ways.

Use training activities that accommodate a variety of learning styles. Make sure that participants can respond by writing, speaking, drawing, or acting out. Encourage and permit participants to learn individually, in pairs, and in teams.

Law of learning domains. Different types of learning require different types of strategies.

Learn to recognize different types of training content and objectives. Don’t use the same type of activity to teach different types of training. Use suitable designs to help participants achieve different training objectives related to concepts, procedures, and principles.

Law of response level. Learners master skills and knowledge at the level at which they are required to respond during the learning process.

If your training activity requires participants to merely talk about a procedure, don’t assume that they will be able to apply it in their workplace. If you want participants to solve workplace problems, the learning activity should require them to solve problems. Avoid trivial, closed questions with rote-memory answers in your training games. Challenge participants with authentic that require innovative solutions.

All Creatures Great and Small

These laws apply to all animals, include white mice, pigeons, dolphins, and people.

Law of reinforcement: Participants learn to repeat behaviors that are rewarded.

Make sure that training activities provide several opportunities for earning rewards. Require participants to make frequent decisions and responses. During the initial stages of training, reward even partially-correct answers.

Law of emotional learning: Events that are accompanied by intense emotions result in long-lasting learning.

Use training games, simulations, and role plays that add emotional element to learning. Make sure that emotions don’t become too intense and interfere with learning. Make sure that participants don’t learn dysfunctional behaviors because of intense emotions. Debrief participants after emotional activities to reflect on their feelings and learn from their reactions.

Components of a successful employee learning experience

Based on adult learning principles, here is a checklist for a successful employee learning experience:

      The goals of the employee training or development program are clear


      The employees are involved in determining the knowledge, skills and abilities to be learned


      The employees are participating in activities during the learning process


      The work experiences and knowledge that employees bring to each learning situation are used as a resource


      A practical and problem-centered approach based on real examples is used


      New material is connected to the employee’s past learning and work experience


      The employees are given an opportunity to reinforce what they learn by practicing


      The learning environment is informal, safe and supportive


      The individual employee is shown respect


    The learning opportunity promotes positive self-esteem

Components of a successful employee learning experience

Based on adult learning principles, here is a checklist for a successful employee learning experience:

      The goals of the employee training or development program are clear


      The employees are involved in determining the knowledge, skills and abilities to be learned


      The employees are participating in activities during the learning process


      The work experiences and knowledge that employees bring to each learning situation are used as a resource


      A practical and problem-centered approach based on real examples is used


      New material is connected to the employee’s past learning and work experience


      The employees are given an opportunity to reinforce what they learn by practicing


      The learning environment is informal, safe and supportive


      The individual employee is shown respect


    The learning opportunity promotes positive self-esteem

117874 Learning Oppertunities


  • Short name:   Assist and Support Learners
  • Full description: 117874  Assist and support learners to manage their learning experiences
  • Accredited: Yes, ETDP SETA NQF Accredited
  • SETA: Education, Training, Development & Practices Sector Education & Training Authority (ETDP Seta)  www.etdpseta.org.za
  • NQF: 5
  • Credits: 11
  • Duration:2 days
  • Re-Assessment fees: None
  • Assignment extensions: Up to 18 months at no additional cost.
  • Hidden fees: None
  • Workshops: Weekly in Durban
  • Recognition: Based on the National Qualifications Framework that is Nationally Accepted in South Africa
  • Success rate of learner: Our success rate for complete assignments and certified learners currently is estimated at 99%.
  • Short-cuts: We don’t take any short-cuts such as POE building in the class and follow all the guidelines stipulated by SAQA and the SETA.
  • Discounts: We offer a members discount for returning students, pensioners and NGO discount. Group discounts on own venues are also offered.


Currently we have the following supporting structures in place for our members:

  • Telephone support 7 days a week.
  • Whatsapp –
    • Cell. 0825507946 Tel. 0867227014 English.
    • Cell. Zulu 0727372733 Tel. 0318115749 English/Zulu.
  • Helpdesk – www.help.trainyoucan.co.za – 7 days a week (integrated email and sms notifications).
  • Weekly workshops in Durban on Fridays between 8am and 12am.
  • Skype support – contact helpdesk for details.
  • Members private forum with model answers to all  activities including JOB opportunities.


  •  This course is based on the Unit Standards 117865 + 117874  – click here to read more plus click here
  • People credited with this unit standard are able to:
    • Source and maintain information to assist and support learners;
    • Provide assistance and support to learners;
    • Maintain records of assistance and support provided; and
    • Review support services.
    • Identify and analyse learner needs;
    • Prepare and review an individual development plan;
    • Provide guidance to learners;
    • Maintain records of learner needs and guidance provided; and
    • Evaluate services provided.
  • Purpose of the course:
    • This unit standard will be useful to those who work within an education, training and development context and who provide guidance and advise to learners about their learning, assessment and recognition opportunities.
  • Each learner will receive a learner guide and workbook during the contact session that will assist them with the building of their POE (Portfolio of Evidence).
  • Learner will receive full instruction from us before the course to assist with the preparation of the course. Where possible additional resources will be provided to learners who are not able to get there resources.
  • Learners are required to apply skills and knowledge obtained on the course in the workplace. As learners apply these skills, they produce evidence, which needs to be compiled into a portfolio of evidence (POE). This POE is submitted to Trainyoucan for assessment. Learners will receive a workbook and portfolio guide, which will guide them through the process. Any additional resources required will be provided by Trainyoucan to the learner, free of charge.


  • Training Manager
  • Mentors & Coaches
  • HR Persons
  • Managers who need to assess their staff
  • Persons with no formal experience of the SETA and the NQF
  • Recruitment Staff
  • Learning material developers looking to enhance their programmes
  • Anyone else who can benefit from assessment methodologies
  • New training providers applying for accreditation
  • Employers running learnerships

Also learners who study towards their ODETDP SETA Qualification. Click here for more detail


  • The credit calculation is based on the assumption that learners are already competent in the learning area in which they will provide training. (Have scope or experience to train in a specific field.)
  • Minimum of 14 days workplace experience in training or facilitation. (part time or full time)
  • Basic communication skills (English = reading and writing skills on a NQF level 4 (Grade 12 or equal))
  • Able to attend the contact session and any of our workshops offered.
  • Access to email and where possible to the internet for research.

Learner preparation for the contact session (Classroom Training)


  • Attending the full contact session. (Classroom Session)
  • Copy of ID and CV for registration purposes. (Indicating previous workplace experience)
  • Pen and paper.
  • A4 lever arch file + 12 dividers. (Cheap dividers)

b) OPTIONAL: (Not required but for those who want to start with the research)

  • Laptop
  • Organisation or Provider policies where available or at least knowledge of the organisations policies if any. These might include: Where possible will TRAINYOUCAN provide template policies to learners who do not have access to these policies.
  • Visit your SETA’s website and determine if they have any policies or rules of contact for their assessors available. Where not possible will TRAINYOUCAN provide a copy of this.
  • Visit any SETA of your choice and obtain a copy of the Assessors Registration template that you must complete on completion and submit to your SETA. This is very helpful if you have any questions or answers regarding the completion of this document. (Where possible will TRAINYOUCAN provide copies of this.
  • Internet access to view additional support on our Forum


  1. Enrol as a learner with Trainyoucan by completing the application form. (PDF document or the online enrolment)
  2. Attend the contact session with Trainyoucan. (Each course starts with a 2 hour induction on the SETA’s and explaining the accreditation process. (Most of the learners find this very useful.)
  3. We provide you with all the learning material that you need, including a workbook that you must complete. (Outside the classroom as required by the Unit Standard and OBE Learning)
  4. You complete the workbook and submit this to our offices for assessments, or you can attend any of our FREE workshops for additional support. Any person who attended any of our courses can attend our workshops for FREE. One of the assessors can also evaluate your POE (Portfolio of Evidence) during the workshop and provide you feedback immediately.
  5. Your POE is submitted to our Assessors that will complete the assessment process and provide directly feedback to you through our online tracking system.
  6. Your file is scheduled for verification with the relevant SETA and uploaded on completion. Your final Certificate will only be issued once the SETA verified your POE for security reasons and a final SOR will be issues. (SOR, also called the “Statement of Results” will be issued by the relevant SETA once the process was completed). You MUST receive your SOR one completion from any provider as proof that you were registered. NO SOR = NO ACCREDITATION. (Bear in mind that this process can take up to 3 months to complete.
  7. We provide you with all the guidance and resources to register with the relevant SETA of your choice.


The criteria for the accreditation of training providers define a number of requirements that include:

  • Administrative procedures and record keeping and policies.
  • Management review
  • Authorization of affiliates
  • Tutor selection, training and performance review
  • Issuance of training certificates
  • Learner Support
  • Delivery, Assessment and Moderation practices

NOTE: There are basically two different types of accreditation:

  1. The training provider or the institute must be accredited by a SETA. “ETQA” (Their offices, policies and procedures. This can be any SETA = does not matter what type of courses they offer.)
  2. Each learning programme or qualification is accredited with the relevant SETA “ETQA” who is responsible for this programme. Also note that the word “accreditation” does not mean they SETA accredited. It must say “NQF Accredited”.

 Before you can start with any course you should ask the following questions:

  • Is the course accredited and with what SETA?
  • What is the process and duration from start to completion?
  • Are there any additional fees for support to re-submission?
  • Entry Requirements? Do you charge for registration and why?
  • What discount can I get if I do more courses with your institute?
  • What after support and resources to you offer?